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一月在职研究生英语精读一

2015-12-12 13:28       来源:中国在职研究生网    http://www.zzyjs.com

TEXT ONE

Tesco is preparing a legal battle to clear its name of involvement in the dairy price-fixing scandal that has cost consumers ?270 million. Failure to prove that it had no part in collusion with other supermarkets and dairy processors may land it with a fine of at least ?80 million. The Office of Fair Trading (OFT) said yesterday that Asda, Sainsbury’s and the former Safeway, plus the dairy companies Wiseman, Dairy Crest and Cheese Company, had admitted being in a cartel to fix prices for milk, butter and cheese. They were fined a total of just over ?116 million as part of a leniency deal offered by the watchdog to companies that owned up quickly to anti-competitive behaviour.

Officials at the OFT admitted privately that they did not think they would ever discover which company or individual had initiated the pricing formula. But the watchdog recognises that at the time supermarkets were under pressure from politicians and farmers to raise the cost of milk to save dairy farming, though it is not certain that money found its way to farmers. The OFT claimed in September that it had found evidence that the retail chains had passed future milk prices to dairy companies, which then reached a fixed price among themselves.

The average cost to each household is thought to be ?11.25 over 2002 and 2003. Prices went up an extra 3p on a pint of milk, 15p on a quarter of a pound of butter and 15p on a half pound of cheese. There is no direct recompense for consumers, however, and the money will go to the Treasury. The National Consumer Council gave warning that the admissions would dent consumer confidence in leading high street names and that people would become sceptical of their claims. Farmers For Action, the group of farmers that has led protests over low milk prices since 2000, is seeking legal advice on whether it can now bring a claim for compensation.

The OFT investigation is continuing, however, in relation to Tesco, Morrisons and the dairy group Lactalis McLelland, and any legal action is expected to be delayed until that is completed.

Tesco was defiant and said that it was preparing a robust defence of its actions. Lucy Neville-Rolfe, its executive director, said: “As we have always said, we acted independently and we did not collude with anyone. Our position is different from our competitors and we are defending our own case vigorously. Our philosophy is to give a good deal to customers.”

Morrisons has supported the OFT in inquiries into the former Safeway business that it took over, but in a statement said that it was still making “strong representations” in its defence. A spokeswoman for Lactalis McLelland said that the company was “co-operating” with the OFT. Industry insiders suggested that the three companies were deliberately stalling the OFT investigation.

Sainsbury’s admitted yesterday that it had agreed to pay ?26 million in fines, but denied that it had sought to profiteer. Justin King, the chief executive, said he was disappointed that the company had been penalised for actions meant to help farmers but recognised the benefit of a speedy settlement. Asda declined to say how much it would pay in fines and also said that its intention had been to help farmers under severe financial pressure.

1. From the first paragraph, we may infer that _____

[A] Tesco is the most resolute among all the retailers to defend its reputation.

[B] it is already proved that Tesco has colluded with Asda, Wiseman, Dairy Crest and Cheese Company in fixing the dairy price.

[C] Tesco is offered a leniency deal of ?80 million because of its quick response to the anti-competitive behaviors

[D] Tesco is trying its best to prove its innocence of the scandal.

2. Who is most probably the initiator of the pricing formula?

[A] Retail chains.

[B] Farmers.

[C] Dairy companies.

[D] Politicians

3. The word “defiant” (Line 1, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.

[A] resisiting

[B] angry

[C] deficient

[D] confident

4. We may infer from Morrisons’ statement that _____

[A] Morrisons turn out to be the most defentive when dealing with OFT.

[B] Morrisons is reluctant to support the inquiries into the former Safeway business.

[C] industry insiders suggest that Morrisons was trying to delay the OFT investigation with non-cooperation.

[D] Morrisons indeed refuses to admit its involvement in the scandal.

5. The writer’s attitude to Tesco can be said to be _____

[A] biased.

[B] objective.

[C] sympathetic.

[D] optimistic.

篇章剖析:

本文介绍了目前奶制品公司因内部设定价格而面临受到的调查和处罚的状况。第一段由Tesco公司目前正在通过法律解决自己面临的困境引出本文的话题;第二段是追溯牛奶价格上涨的原因;第三段是讲述牛奶价格上涨对消费者的损害;第四段又回到Tesco事件上,描述了其态度;第五段和第六段讲述其他相关公司对该事件的看法和态度。

词汇注释:

processor n. 加工者                        `cartel n. 卡特尔, 联合企业, 垄断集团

leniency n. 宽大,慈悲,慈悲宽厚的行为       dent v.使凹下, 凹进, 削弱

defiant adj.挑战的, 挑衅的, 目中无人的        stall v.(使)停转, (使)停止, 迟延          

  profiteer vi. 牟取暴利

难句突破:

(1) They were fined a total of just over ?116 million as part of a leniency deal offered by the watchdog to companies that owned up quickly to anti-competitive behaviour.

主体句式: They were fined a total of just over ?116 million as part of a leniency deal…

结构分析: 这是一个复合句,其成分比较复杂。offered by the watchdog to companies作为一个分词短语来修饰前面的deal, 而后面that引导的定语从句又修饰companies。

句子译文:他们总共的罚金只有差不多一亿一千六百万,这是监察部门对积极坦白反竞争行为公司的一种宽大处理。

(2) The National Consumer Council gave warning that the admissions would dent consumer confidence in leading high street names and that people would become sceptical of their claims.

[主体句式] The National Consumer Council gave warning…

[结构分析] 这是一个复合句,句子的宾语warning 带着两个同位语从句,以that 引导;第一个同位语从句中,confidence in 后面是一个分词短语作介词的宾语。

[句子译文]全国消费者委员会警告说长此以往会损害消费者的信心,人们也会逐渐怀疑委员会的声明。

题目分析:

1. From the first paragraph, we may infer that _____ 由第一段可以推断出______

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