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2012-06-18 11:50       来源:中国在职研究生网


Text 3

In 2010. a federal judge shook America´s biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a "preliminary step" in a longer battle.

On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed holb patents to two genss that help forecast a woman´s risk of breast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah,said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.

But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents´ monopolies restrict access to genetic tests such as Myriad´s. A growing number seem to agree.Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule "is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds. "

Despite the appeals court´s decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of indivi dual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court.

AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in  the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug´s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ´connecting the dits´,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO.

Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed. canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like-----

A.their executives to be active

B.judges to rule out gene patenting

C.genes to be patcntablc

D.the BIO to issue a warning

32.those who are against gene patents believe that----

A.genetic tests are not reliable

B.only man-made products are patentable

C.patents on  genes depend much on innovatiaon

D.courts should restrict access to gene tic tests

33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for----

A.establishing disease comelations

B.discovering gene interactions

C.drawing pictures of genes

D.identifying human DNA

34.By saying "each meeting was packed"(line4,para6)the author means that -----

A.the supreme court was authoritative

B.the BIO was a powerful organization

C.gene patenting was a great concern

D.lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs

35.generally speaking ,the author´s attitude toward gene patenting is----





Text 4

The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends,

it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics,our culture, and the character of our society for years.

No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending.

But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes.

Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind.

In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society´s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend.

36.By saying "to find silver linings"(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___.

[A]seek subsidies from the govemment

[B]explore reasons for the unermployment

[C]make profits from the troubled economy

[D]look on the bright side of the recession

37.According to Paragraph 2,the recession has made people_____.

[A]realize the national dream

[B]struggle against each other

[C]challenge their lifestyle

[D]reconsider their lifestyle

38.Benjamin Friedman believe that economic recessions may_____.

[A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants

[B]bring out more evils of human nature

[C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms

[D]ease conflicts between races and classes

39.The research of Till Von Wachther suggests that in recession graduates from elite universities tend to _____.

[A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities

[B]catch up quickly with experienced employees

[C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others´

[D]recover more quickly than the others

40.The author thinks that the influence of hard times on society is____.









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